Scrub typhus (ST), also known as tsutsugamushi disease and caused by rickettsia Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an underestimated fatal epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, resulting in a million human infections each year. ST is easily misdiagnosed. In order to resolve this problem, we adopted baculovirus surface-display technology to express three variants of TSA56, the major membrane antigen of O. tsutsugamushi, as well as the passenger domain of ScaC (ScaC-PD), on insect Sf21 cell surfaces rather than biosafety level 3 bacteria in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Recombinant TSA56 and ScaC-PD were all properly expressed and displayed on Sf21 cells. Our cell-based ELISA comprising the four antigen-displaying cell types interacted with monoclonal antibodies as well as serum samples from ST-positive field-caught rats. By adopting this approach, we circumvented complex purification and refolding processes required to generate recombinant O. tsutsugamushi antigens and reduced the need for expensive equipment and extensively trained operators. Thus, our system has the potential to become a widely used serological platform for diagnosing ST.