Neuroinflammation is associated with diverse neurological disorders. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 cell-autonomously regulate neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which these three TLRs affect neuronal morphology are unclear. In this study, we compare these TLRs in mouse neurons. By combining in vitro neuronal cultures, in utero electroporation, and transcriptomic profiling, we show that TLR8, TLR7, and TLR3 promote dendritic pruning via MYD88 signaling. However, they induce different transcriptomic profiles related to innate immunity, signaling, and neuronal development. The temporal expression patterns and the effects on neuronal morphology are not identical upon activation of these endosomal TLRs. Pathway analyses and in vitro studies specifically implicate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in TLR8-mediated dendritic pruning. We further show that TLR8 is more critical for dendritic arborization at a late development stage in vivo. The activation of TLR8, TLR7, or TLR3 results in dendritic shortening, and TLR7 and TLR3 but not TLR8 also control axonal growth. In-depth transcriptomic analyses show that TLRs use different downstream pathways to control neuronal morphology, which may contribute to neuronal development and pathological responses.