The neuronal innate immune system recognizes endogenous danger signals and regulates neuronal development and function. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), one of the TLRs that trigger innate immune responses in neurons, controls neuronal morphology. To further assess the function of TLR7 in the brain, we applied next generation sequencing to investigate the effect of Tlr7 deletion on gene expression in hippocampal and cortical mixed cultures and on mouse behaviors. Since previous in vivo study suggested that TLR7 is more critical for neuronal morphology at earlier developmental stages, we analyzed two time-points (4 and 18 DIV) to represent young and mature neurons, respectively. At 4 DIV, Tlr7 KO neurons exhibited reduced expression of genes involved in neuronal development, synaptic organization and activity and behaviors. Some of these Tlr7-regulated genes are also associated with multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. TLR7-regulated transcriptomic profiles differed at 18 DIV. Apart from neuronal genes, genes related to glial cell development and differentiation became sensitive to Tlr7 deletion at 18 DIV. Moreover, Tlr7 KO mice exhibited altered behaviors in terms of anxiety, aggression, olfaction and contextual fear memory. Electrophysiological analysis further showed an impairment of long-term potentiation in Tlr7 KO hippocampus. Taken together, these results indicate that TLR7 regulates neural development and brain function, even in the absence of infectious or pathogenic molecules. Our findings strengthen evidence for the role of the neuronal innate immune system in fine-tuning neuronal morphology and activity and implicate it in neuropsychiatric disorders.